原発再稼働の前に―「被害地元」と向き合え

June 18, 2014
EDITORIAL: Abe needs to get priorities right before reactor restarts
原発再稼働の前に―「被害地元」と向き合え

The central government has required all prefectural and municipal entities within a 30-kilometer radius of nuclear power plants to have their own emergency response plans.
This was one of the lessons of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.
Does it follow then that areas outside the 30-km radius are safe?
大飯原発での事故を想定し、甲状腺の被曝線量が50ミリシーベルト超となる可能性がある地域
 福島での大事故の後、国は原発から30キロ圏内の地域に、万一の事態に備えて防災計画を立てるよう求めている。では30キロ圏外の地域は安全なのか。

That is anything but the case, as indicated by estimates of predicted dispersions of radioactive materials made by local governments around nuclear power plants.
 とてもそうは言えない。原発の周辺自治体が試算した放射性物質拡散予測で、その現実が次々と浮き彫りになっている。

For example, the border of Hyogo Prefecture is at least 40 kilometers from the offline Oi and Takahama nuclear power plants in Fukui Prefecture, which operator Kansai Electric Power Co. intends to restart at an early date.
 例えば兵庫県は、関西電力が早期の再稼働をめざす福井県の大飯、高浜の両原発から最短でも40キロ離れている。

But the Hyogo prefectural government used data on past weather patterns to estimate what levels of radiation thyroid glands would be exposed to in the event of Fukushima-class disasters taking place at both the Oi and Takahama plants. It found that the doses could exceed the international benchmark of 50 millisieverts in seven days, even on Awajishima island, which is 150 kilometers from the nuclear power plants. Individuals exposed to radiation levels of 50 millisieverts or higher are advised to take iodine tablets to protect their thyroid glands from radiation.
 両原発で福島級の事故が起きたと想定し、過去の気象データを基に甲状腺の被曝(ひばく)線量を調べた。すると、150キロ離れた淡路島でも「安定ヨウ素剤の服用が必要」とする国際基準(7日間で50ミリシーベルト)を超える場合があるとわかった。

Depending on wind direction, similar scenarios were also indicated for the cities of Kobe, Amagasaki, Nishinomiya and elsewhere along the Hanshin belt between Osaka and Kobe.
神戸市や尼崎、西宮市などの阪神間でも、風向きによって基準値を大きく上回る可能性が浮かんだ。

Simulations by the Shiga prefectural government found that, in a worst-case scenario, a Fukushima-class disaster at Oi could spread radioactive materials exceeding the international benchmark into the airspace above Lake Biwako, more than 40 kilometers away. Similarly affected areas could include parts of Kyoto and Osaka prefectures.
 滋賀県の試算でも、大飯原発で福島級の事故が起きると、最悪の場合、40キロ以上離れた琵琶湖上空まで基準を超える放射性物質が届くという結果が出た。基準超えの地域は京都、大阪府にも広がっていた。

What do these estimates signify?
 なぜこんなことになるのか。

RISK OF THYROID CANCER
■甲状腺がんのリスク

A major accident at a nuclear power plant releases radioactive substances, which will eventually contaminate surface areas. Under international standards, evacuations and decontamination work would be required in areas where an individual’s total body irradiation level exceeds 100 millisieverts in seven days. In the event of a Fukushima-class disaster, the areas requiring evacuation and decontamination work would be roughly within a 30-km radius of the stricken plant.
 原発が大事故を起こすと、大気中に飛び出した放射性物質が広がり、地表も汚染する。福島級の事故の場合、避難や除染を必要とする国際基準(7日間の全身被曝で100ミリシーベルト)を超える地域は、原発からおおむね30キロ圏内とされた。

But winds carry and spread airborne radioactive plumes further away. In areas where radioactive iodine in the atmosphere has not been sufficiently rarefied, thyroid glands are exposed to radiation and the risk of thyroid cancer rises, especially among small children. It is vital to put a system in place to speedily discern the spread of radioactive plumes and determine the right timing for people to take iodine tablets.
 だが放射性物質の集まり「プルーム」は、風任せでさらに外へと流れていく。大気中の放射性ヨウ素が十分に薄まっていないエリアでは、のど元の甲状腺が被曝して、小さな子どもが甲状腺がんになる確率が高くなる。プルームの拡散状況を素早く把握する体制を整え、的確なタイミングで安定ヨウ素剤を飲んでもらう備えが欠かせない。

One other factor that must be taken into consideration is that when it rains along the plume’s track, concentrations of cesium and other radioactive materials that have long-term effects will fall to the ground and contaminate the soil. When that happens, temporary measures will not be sufficient.
 さらに考慮せねばならないのは、プルームの通過と降雨が重なれば、セシウムなど長期の影響をもたらす放射性物質が地上に集中的に落ちて、土地を汚染してしまうことだ。そうなれば一時的な対策ではすまない。

In the Fukushima Prefecture village of Iitate, about 40 km from the crippled Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, rain fell just when a radioactive plume reached the community. Before the nuclear disaster, the villagers were in the process of building a self-sustaining farming operation in the belief that everyone could live happily. The village had not benefited financially from the nearby nuclear power plant. But since the disaster, the entire village has remained off-limits to the villagers.
 福島第一原発から約40キロ離れた福島県飯舘村では、プルームが飯舘村の上空に達したとき雨が降った。原発マネーとは縁遠く、地産地消や心の豊かさを目指す村づくりを進めていた。だが事故のせいで、今も全域が避難区域に指定されている。

The Union of Kansai Governments, whose members come from seven prefectures, including Osaka and Kyoto, has called on the central government to issue comprehensive guidelines on measures that should be taken in areas outside the 30-km radius from nuclear power plants, based on studies by local governments.
 関西広域連合は自治体の独自調査の結果をふまえ、30キロ圏外対策の具体的な指針を出すよう国に求めた。

Viable evacuation plans, along with prepared guidelines, need to be in place before issuing the order to evacuate. Otherwise, chaos can result. This was made clear from statements given to the government’s Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations by Tetsuro Fukuyama, a former deputy chief Cabinet secretary who was in charge of the evacuation process during the Fukushima crisis.
備えがなくては避難指示がいかに混乱するかは、明るみに出た「福山調書」でもはっきりした。

Acknowledging the need for such guidelines, the central government states in its nuclear disaster response policy outline that the Nuclear Regulation Authority will consider defining the extent of evacuation zones and other matters. 国も必要性を認め、原子力規制委員会が範囲の設定などを検討すると、原子力災害対策指針に記している。

However, the NRA has yet to embark on this task in earnest, mainly because it is engaged in safety screenings ahead of nuclear power plant restarts.
 だが規制委では今も本格的な検討はされておらず、再稼働に向けて、原発の施設内の審査が着々と進む。

LEGITIMATE DEMAND
■当たり前の主張

With nuclear power generation, there is no such thing as “absolute safety”–no matter how stringent the regulations.  もちろん規制をいくら強めても「絶対に安全」はない。

If any nuclear power plant is to be put into operation, the very least that must be done is to get an accurate grasp of the areas that will be affected in the event of a disaster.
By the same token, residents of those areas need to be informed of the exact nature of the risks they face and the steps that will be taken in the event of a nuclear accident.
原発を動かすなら、事故で被害を受ける地域を把握し、具体的な危険と対策を示して住民の了解を得ることが最低限必要である。

But to assume the central government understands this concept would be asking a lot.
 だが国の覚悟は疑わしい。

Even though municipalities that host nuclear power plants will not be the only ones affected in a nuclear accident, the government’s Strategic Energy Plan states that the central government “will strive to obtain the understanding and cooperation of people associated with the municipalities that host nuclear power plants” before restarting offline reactors.
被害を受けるのは立地自治体だけではないのに、エネルギー基本計画には、再稼働の際は「立地自治体等関係者の理解と協力を得るよう取り組む」と記した。

Here, we can see right through the government’s intent to press for the resumption of operations by taking advantage of those local governments’ dependence on nuclear power plants for their fiscal and employment needs.
財政や雇用を原発に頼る自治体の弱みを見越して再稼働をスルリと進めたい思惑が見える。

After the onset of the Fukushima disaster, Shiga Governor Yukiko Kada came up with the term “higai jimoto” to denote all local governments, not just those which host nuclear power plants, that could be seriously affected by a nuclear accident.
 滋賀県の嘉田由紀子知事は福島での事故後、「被害地元」という考え方を示した。

Kada demanded the central government recognize them all as affected parties and allow them to get involved in the process before restarting nuclear plants.
原発を動かすかどうかは、事故の被害を受ける全ての自治体が地元としてかかわれるようにしてほしいと求めている。

This is a legitimate demand. In reality, however, it is still only the municipal and prefectural governments hosting nuclear power plants that have any real say.
当然の主張だ。だが現実は、立地自治体以外はほとんど口出しできない状況が続いている。

Toshiki Kudo, mayor of Hakodate in Hokkaido, who filed a lawsuit demanding the suspension of construction of the Oma nuclear power plant in neighboring Aomori Prefecture, warned that the same old “safety myth” of nuclear power generation will be perpetuated if the project is allowed to have its way.
 隣の青森県にある大間原発の建設差し止めを求めて提訴した北海道函館市の工藤寿樹市長は、このままではまた「安全神話」になってしまうと警鐘を鳴らす。

“It will be game over for our country if the government stops trying its hardest to win the understanding of the people,” Kudo said.
「理解を得るための手間ひまを惜しんだらおしまいだ」

At a recent news conference on Japan’s right to collective self-defense, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe reiterated that the government will “protect lives of the Japanese people.” If he is genuinely committed to saving people’s lives, he obviously needs to look squarely at all local communities that could be seriously affected by a nuclear disaster before he can even begin to argue in favor of restarting idle nuclear reactors.
 日本人の命を守る――。集団的自衛権の行使をめぐる記者会見で、安倍首相は繰り返した。それならば、原発事故の被害地元とも向き合わねばならない。再稼働の議論はそこからだ。

–The Asahi Shimbun, June 18

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srachai について

early retired civil engineer migrated from Tokyo to Thailand
カテゴリー: 英字新聞 パーマリンク

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