集団的自衛権 抑止力向上へ意義深い「容認」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Constitutional reinterpretation enhances Japan’s deterrent power
集団的自衛権 抑止力向上へ意義深い「容認」

The government has made a historic decision that will reinforce our coordination with the United States and other members of the international community. It is also likely that the decision will contribute to solidifying Japan’s peace and security.
 日米防衛指針に適切に反映せよ
 米国など国際社会との連携を強化し、日本の平和と安全をより確かなものにするうえで、歴史的な意義があろう。

On Tuesday, the Cabinet approved the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution to allow limited exercise of the right of collective self-defense.
 政府が、集団的自衛権の行使を限定的に容認する新たな政府見解を閣議決定した。

At a press conference that day, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed his resolve to “consolidate Japan’s path as a peace-seeking nation.” He also pledged to establish “a seamless legal framework on national security to protect the lives and daily livelihood of the people.”
 安倍首相は記者会見で、「平和国家としての歩みを、さらに力強いものにする。国民の命と暮らしを守るため、切れ目のない安全保障法制を整備する」と語った。

There have been gaps between the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito over the issue. While the LDP has supported permitting Japan to exercise its right of collective self-defense, Komeito held onto a cautious approach. We would like to praise both parties’ efforts to find middle ground and reach an agreement.
 行使容認に前向きな自民党と、慎重な公明党の立場は当初、隔たっていたが、両党が歩み寄り、合意に達したことを歓迎したい。

Baseless accusations
 ◆「解釈改憲」は的外れだ◆

It is safe to say that Abe’s fiery devotion to the cause, as well as his persistent and unyielding position on the reinterpretation of the Constitution, has made it possible for the ruling parties to overcome difficulties and reach an agreement.
 安倍首相が憲法解釈の変更に強い意欲を示し、最後まで揺るぎない姿勢を貫いたことが、困難な合意形成を実現させたと言える。

Komeito had to take time in building a consensus, including holding talks with its regional organizations, but in the end it was able to reach a responsible decision. We believe Komeito’s experience as a member of the ruling coalition has greatly helped the party reach such untiy.
 公明党は、地方組織を含む党内調整に時間を要したが、責任ある結論を出せたのは連立政権の一翼を担った経験の賜物たまものだろう。

Under the government’s reinterpretation of the Constitution, Japan will be permitted to use the minimum necessary force when an armed attack takes place against a foreign country with which Japan has close relations, and there is a clear danger that the basic rights of the people of Japan will be fundamentally undermined.
 政府見解は、密接な関係にある国が攻撃され、日本国民の権利が根底から覆される明白な危険がある場合、必要最小限度の実力行使が許容されると記した。

The interpretation that Japan “possesses, but cannot exercise” the right of collective self-defense has long stood. Allowing Japan to exercise the right is a major sea change, as it means Japan has overcome a national security problem that has long loomed over the nation.
 集団的自衛権は「保有するが、行使できない」とされてきた。その行使容認に転じたことは、長年の安全保障上の課題を克服したという意味で画期的である。

The reinterpretation does not touch on specific issues, but it will likely enable Japan to deal with all eight example scenarios cited by the government as cases in which the nation should be able to exercise its collective self-defense right. Those scenarios include protecting U.S. vessels under armed attack, minesweeping operations and missile defense.
 今回の政府見解には明記されていないが、米艦防護、機雷除去、ミサイル防衛など、政府が集団的自衛権を適用すべきとした8事例すべてに対応できるとされる。

The reinterpretation has also left rooms for Japan to participate in minesweeping operations authorized by a U.N. resolution under a collective security framework. If the government goes too far in narrowing the scope of the nation’s permissible exercise of the collective self-defense right, it would restrain the activities of the Self-Defense Forces and hollow out the significance of changing the interpretation of the Constitution.
 国連決議による集団安全保障に基づく掃海などを可能にする余地を残したことも評価できる。行使の範囲を狭めすぎれば、自衛隊の活動が制約され、憲法解釈変更の意義が損なわれてしまう。

The reinterpretation follows the core principle of the 1972 government view on the right of collective self-defense and is logically consistent with previous interpretations. It is clear that this reinterpretation was made within a reasonable range.
 新解釈は、1972年の政府見解の根幹を踏襲し、過去の解釈との論理的整合性を維持しており、合理的な範囲内の変更である。

This is not a case of using constitutional reinterpretation where actual amendments to the Constitution are required, and it differs fundamentally from such cases. This case is more a matter of the government making necessary adjustments to previous interpretations that were overly self-restrictive due to conditions in the Diet.
 本来は憲法改正すべき内容なのに、解釈変更で対応する「解釈改憲」とは本質的に異なる。むしろ、国会対策上などの理由で過度に抑制的だった従来の憲法解釈を、より適正化したと言えよう。

The reinterpretation is made based on the Cabinet’s right to an official interpretation of the Constitution. The Diet will play a role in this issue through deliberation of bills related to the reinterpretation, and when the government asks the Diet for approval of plans to exercise the right of collective self-defense. The judiciary also has a voice in the issue through the power of judicial review.
 今回の解釈変更は、内閣が持つ公権的解釈権に基づく。国会は今後、関連法案審議や、自衛権発動時の承認という形で関与する。司法も違憲立法審査権を有する。

Thus the issue will be handled consistently with the Constitution’s principle of separation of powers among the administrative, legislative and judicial branches. It is difficult to understand criticisms asserting that the reinterpretation is “counter to constitutionalism.”
 いずれも憲法の三権分立に沿った対応であり、「立憲主義に反する」との批判は理解し難い。

It is similarly off base to argue that the latest Cabinet decision would pave the way for war, a line of argument propagated by left-leaning and liberal voices. Exercising our nation’s right of collective self-defense does not mean using force to protect any other nation in a situation unrelated to our own defense. The government’s new stance on the right has categorically ruled out our nation’s involvement in military situations such as the Iraq War.
 「戦争への道を開く」といった左翼・リベラル勢力による情緒的な扇動も見当違いだ。自国の防衛と無関係に、他の国を守るわけではない。イラク戦争のような例は完全に排除されている。

Permanent dispatch law needed
 ◆自衛隊恒久法の検討を◆

The government’s revised view on the right has also expanded the range of cooperative international peace activities the SDF will be able to conduct.
 政府見解では、自衛隊の国際平和協力活動も拡充した。

For instance, the revised interpretation has narrowed the scope of a constitutional ban on SDF actions inseparable from the use of force by another country. The Cabinet decision has limited the ban to “activities in combat zones.”
 憲法の禁じる「武力行使との一体化」の対象を「戦闘現場における活動」などに限定した。

The decision has also made it possible for the SDF to conduct armed rescue operations during their involvement in U.N. peacekeeping missions and other overseas missions.

If civilians or foreign troops face an armed attack in areas distant from but accessible to SDF members engaged in such overseas tasks, these personnel will be able to go to their rescue. In such cases, they would be permitted to use weapons in their execution of such duties, under the latest Cabinet decision.
「駆けつけ警護」や任務遂行目的の武器使用も可能にしている。

We believe these changes will enable the SDF to better accomplish international missions such as supply, transport and medical support activities along with U.N. peacekeeping operations.
 自衛隊による他国部隊への補給・輸送・医療支援や、国連平和維持活動(PKO)で、より実効性ある活動が期待できよう。

The Cabinet decision also addresses some issues regarding SDF actions to be taken in what have been described as gray-zone situations, including a potential scenario in which foreign armed groups take control of remote Japanese islands. It expedites procedures for invoking SDF maritime patrol operations and other activities aimed at addressing such situations.
 武装集団による離島占拠などグレーゾーン事態の対処では、自衛隊の海上警備行動などの手続きを迅速化することになった。

We suggest the government consider expanding the list of SDF duties to include territorial patrols, thereby enabling our country to carry out “seamless activities” in the event that the nation’s peaceful situation is subverted by a military contingency.
 さらに、平時から有事へ「切れ目のない活動」を行うため、自衛隊に領域警備任務などを付与することも検討してはどうか。

The government and the ruling parties are set to begin implementing legislative measures to complement the Cabinet decision during this autumn’s extraordinary Diet session. Among those measures are amendments to the Self-Defense Forces Law and the Armed Attack Situations Response Law. It is important to create and refine laws to respond flexibly to a variety of situations.
 政府・与党は秋の臨時国会から自衛隊法、武力攻撃事態法の改正など、関連法の整備を開始する。様々な事態に柔軟に対応できる仕組みにすることが大切だ。

It is also worthwhile to consider establishing a permanent law on SDF dispatch for overseas missions—not only for U.N. peacekeeping missions, as sanctioned under the current legislation.
 PKOに限定せず、自衛隊の海外派遣全体に関する恒久法を制定することも検討に値しよう。

At the end of the year, Tokyo and Washington are scheduled to revise the Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation. The Japanese and U.S. governments must ensure the planned changes to the defense cooperation guidelines properly incorporate changes made to our nation’s defense policies as a result of the latest Cabinet decision. These changes include the newly granted approval for exercise of the right of collective self-defense and the reconsideration of the ban on SDF actions that are inseparable from the use of force by other nations.
 日米両政府は年末に、日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)を改定する予定だ。集団的自衛権の行使容認や「武力行使との一体化」の見直しを、指針にきちんと反映させなければならない。

Public support essential
 ◆国民の理解を広げたい◆

We hope Japan and the United States will work together to deepen their defense cooperation. Japan should increase SDF support for U.S. forces, and U.S. forces should be more significantly involved in the defense of remote islands and other parts of our country.
 自衛隊の対米支援を拡大する一方、離島など日本防衛への米軍の関与を強め、双方向で防衛協力を深化させたい。

Drafting plans for military emergencies and repeating joint military exercises under the new defense cooperation guidelines will also function to shore up the Japan-U.S. alliance and increase the two nations’ combined deterrent potential.
新たな指針に基づく有事の計画策定や共同訓練を重ねることが、日米同盟を強化し、抑止力を高めていく。

Abe’s efforts to lift the self-imposed ban on our nation exercising its collective self-defense right has garnered support not only from the ruling parties, but from opposition lawmakers as well. The idea is endorsed by such opposition members as Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party), Your Party and some members of the leading opposition Democratic Party of Japan. However, the DPJ’s top cadre remains noncommittal about whether to approve the exercise of the right, and has criticized Abe’s initiative in reinterpreting the nation’s fundamental law.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認は、与党のほか、日本維新の会、みんなの党や、さらに民主党の一部も賛成している。民主党執行部は、解釈変更を批判しながら、行使容認の是非は決め切れていない。

With the Cabinet’s decision completed, Abe should take every opportunity—ad-hoc parliamentary sessions that can be convened even during the the Diet’s recess, for example—to explain the significance of ending the ban on the collective self-defense right. It is crucial for the prime minister to make every effort to ensure that the public better understands the true meaning of revising the government’s official stance on the right.
 安倍首相は今後、国会の閉会中審査などの機会を利用し、行使容認の意義を説明して、国民の理解を広げる努力を尽くすべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, July 2, 2014)

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srachai について

early retired civil engineer migrated from Tokyo to Thailand
カテゴリー: 英字新聞 パーマリンク

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