日韓国交50年 「歴史」克服して未来に進もう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan, S. Korea should proceed toward future by surmounting history problems
日韓国交50年 「歴史」克服して未来に進もう

◆東アジア安定へ責任を共有せよ◆

June 22 marks the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Japan-Republic of Korea Basic Relations Treaty that normalized the bilateral diplomatic ties. In light of the paths the two countries have taken during the half century, efforts should be redoubled to address the task of rebuilding the bilateral relationship that has stagnated over the past few years.
日本と韓国の国交を正常化した日韓基本条約の調印から、22日で50年を迎える。半世紀の歩みを踏まえ、近年は停滞している両国関係の再構築に取り組みたい。

South Korean Foreign Minister Yun Byung Se visited Japan for the first time for talks with his Japanese counterpart, Fumio Kishida. Regarding the so-called comfort women, no specific accord was reached except for an agreement to continue consultations between Tokyo and Seoul.
韓国の尹炳世外相が初めて来日し、岸田外相と会談した。慰安婦問題については、協議を継続することで一致するにとどまった。

Concerning Japan’s bid to gain World Cultural Heritage status for Meiji-era (1868-1912) industrial revolution sites, over which South Korea has raised objections, Kishida and Yun concurred that the two countries should go hand in hand in moving forward with Japan supporting South Korea’s efforts to have historic sites from the ancient kingdom of Baekje put on UNESCO’s World Heritage list.
「明治日本の産業革命遺産」の世界文化遺産登録に韓国が反対していた問題では、韓国推薦の「百済歴史地区」とともに、日韓が登録に協力することで合意した。

Politicization of World Heritage registration should have been avoided, and the matter placed in the hands of experts on the cultural values of the properties in question.
本来、専門家による文化財の価値判断を尊重するのが筋で、政治問題化すべきではなかった。

Park urged to end bigotry
◆頑なな朴外交の転換を

In the 1965 Agreement Between Japan and the Republic of Korea Concerning the Settlement of Problems in Regard to Property and Claims and Economic Cooperation, Japan pledged to provide South Korea with economic assistance worth $500 million in grants and government loans. The accord also explicitly stated that all compensation issues were settled “completely and finally.”
1965年に締結された請求権・経済協力協定は、日本側が無償・有償計5億ドルの経済協力を約束し、請求権問題は「完全かつ最終的に解決された」と明記した。

In addition to the funds available under the 1965 agreement, the subsequent investments and technological transfers from Japan to South Korea contributed greatly to South Korea’s dramatic economic growth that has been referred to as the “miracle of Hangan.”
この資金に加え、日本からの投資や技術移転は、「漢江の奇跡」と呼ばれる韓国の飛躍的な経済成長に大きく寄与した。

The 1998 Japan-South Korea Joint Declaration by then South Korean President Kim Dae Jung and Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi marked the advent of a new era between the two nations. While Obuchi in the landmark declaration offered a forthright apology for “damage and suffering” inflicted on the Korean people because of Japan’s colonial rule, Kim expressed a desire for developing “future-oriented relationship” between the two countries.
金大中大統領と小渕首相による98年の「日韓共同宣言」は、新時代を画した。小渕氏が植民地支配による「損害と苦痛」に謝罪し、金氏が「未来志向的な関係を発展させる」と表明した。

Following the Obuchi-Kim talks, the South Korean president allowed by stages the entry of Japanese popular culture into his country. Cultural exchanges between Japan and South Korea gained momentum, later leading to the emergence in Japan of a Korean pop culture boom.
金氏は韓国で日本大衆文化を段階的に開放した。文化交流に弾みがつき、その後の日本の韓流ブームにもつながった。

South Korea now ranks seventh in the list of the world’s biggest exporting countries and is a member of the Group of 20 major economies. Joint undertakings by Japanese and South Korean enterprises have been on the rise and a relationship of interdependence has deepened between the two countries.
韓国は今、世界7位の輸出大国で、主要20か国・地域(G20)の一員だ。日韓企業の共同事業が増え、相互依存関係も深まった。

A trip, however, in August 2012 by then South Korean President Lee Myung Bak to the Takeshima islands, and his remarks calling for an apology by the Emperor soured bilateral ties. President Park Geun-hye, who took office in February 2013, has made the holding of a summit meeting with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe contingent on resolving the comfort women issue, and she has stubbornly refused to meet with the prime minister.
だが、2012年8月の李明博大統領の竹島訪問と天皇陛下への謝罪要求発言で、関係は暗転した。13年2月に就任した朴槿恵大統領は、慰安婦問題の解決を首脳会談の条件に掲げ、安倍首相との会談を頑かたくなに拒み続けている。

In reference to the speech Abe delivered in the U.S. Congress in April this year, Park criticized the prime minister for “failing to take advantage of the opportunity to make a sincere apology … and strengthen trust with neighboring countries.”
今年4月の首相の米議会演説も、「誠実な謝罪によって近隣諸国と信頼を深める機会を、生かせなかった」などと批判した。

Resolve ‘comfort women’
◆「慰安婦」を打開したい

Fundamentally, the compensation problem involving the comfort women has been legally resolved under the 1965 agreement. The Asian Women’s Fund that was established by the Japanese government, however, made payments of “atonement money” to 61 former South Korean comfort women, accompanied by letters of apology by the then Japanese prime minister.
慰安婦の賠償問題は本来、請求権協定で法的に解決済みだ。それでも、日本政府が設立したアジア女性基金は、韓国の元慰安婦61人に首相のお詫わびの手紙とともに「償い金」を支給している。

As long as Park ignores these facts and does not change her stance of pressing the Abe administration for unilateral concessions, it will be difficult for the Japanese side to compromise.
朴氏が、こうした事実関係を無視し、安倍政権に一方的な譲歩を迫る姿勢を改めない限り、日本側も歩み寄るのは難しいだろう。

Behind South Korea’s tough stance on Japan are the country’s growing anti-Japan nationalism, which could be said an adverse by-product of the country’s democratization, and the government’s populist policy.
韓国の対日強硬姿勢の背景には、民主化の副作用とも言える反日ナショナリズムの高まりと、政府の大衆迎合がある。

With regard to comfort women, a private organization in support of former comfort women is in the forefront of public opinion.
慰安婦問題では、元慰安婦を支援する民間団体が世論を牛耳る。

A statue of a girl symbolizing comfort women that this organization erected in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul contravenes the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which stipulates that a host country must protect a diplomatic mission, such as an embassy. To repair diplomatic relations, the statue must first be removed.
この団体がソウルの日本大使館前に設置した慰安婦の少女像は、大使館の保護などを定めたウィーン条約に抵触する。関係改善には、まず少女像の撤去が必要だ。

Park’s pressure on Japan to have a “correct perception of history,” apparently going along with anti-Japan opinion in the country, intensifies anti-South Korean sentiment in Japan, leading to a vicious circle.
朴氏が国内の反日世論に迎合して「正しい歴史認識」を強要することが、日本側の「嫌韓」感情をあおり、悪循環を招いている。

We think that even if there are differences in views on territorial issues or historic perception between Japan and South Korea, the primary task of diplomacy is to minimize the negative impact of such differences on the overall relationship between the two countries.
領土問題や歴史認識で意見の相違があっても、日韓関係全体への影響を極小化することこそが、外交本来の役割ではないか。

We also cannot overlook the fact that South Korea’s judiciary authorities in recent years have shaken the foundation of the 1965 agreement on property claims.
韓国司法が近年、日韓請求権協定を揺るがしているのも看過できない。

The South Korean Constitutional Court has issued a ruling that called for the government to negotiate with the Japanese government over comfort women.
憲法裁判所は、慰安婦問題での対日交渉を政府に求めた。

Meanwhile, South Korean courts have handed down one ruling after another ordering Japanese companies to pay damages to South Koreans who were forced to work in wartimes.
戦時中の徴用工問題で日本企業に損害賠償を命じる判決も相次いでいる。

South Korea’s unlawful occupation of the Takeshima islands is also an issue that must be dealt with under international law and therefore needs to be settled at the International Court of Justice.
韓国による竹島の不法占拠も、国際法にかかわる問題で、国際司法裁判所で決着させるべきだ。

After the war, Japan, as a pacifist nation, has contributed to the development of South Korea. Good examples of such development are the Pohang integrated steel mill, for which engineers, including those of Nippon Steel Corp., cooperated in the construction of the facilities in the city, and the development of a subway system in Seoul.
戦後日本は、平和国家として韓国の発展に貢献してきた。新日本製鉄などの技術者たちが現地で協力した浦項総合製鉄所の建設や、地下鉄の整備は、その好例だ。

School textbooks and local mass media in South Korea seldom refer to such assistance. This is one of the factors behind anti-Japan sentiment among South Koreans.
韓国の教科書やマスコミは日本の協力をほとんど紹介しない。国民の反日感情が続く一因だ。

Worries over China, N. Korea
◆中朝にどう自制を促す

Deteriorating relations between Japan and South Korea have also become a cause for worry for U.S. President Barack Obama’s administration in its Asian rebalancing policy. To pressure the North Korean regime, led by Kim Jong Un, to abandon its nuclear development, it is vital for Japan, the United States and South Korea to reinforce their cooperation.
日韓関係の悪化は、オバマ米政権のアジア重視政策の不安要因ともなっている。北朝鮮の金正恩政権に核放棄を迫るには、日米韓の連携強化が欠かせない。

It is also a cause for worry that Park, attaching importance to strengthening ties with China, has shown signs of forming a unified front with China against Japan over historical issues.
朴氏が中国との関係強化を重視し、歴史問題で共闘する動きを見せていることも懸念材料だ。

One goal is to press for restraint by China, which is aiming to change the regional status quo by force, as seen by its extensive maritime advance. Another goal that must be pursued is to realize the peace and prosperity of East Asia over the mid- and long term. This is the time for both Japan and South Korea to share such strategic goals.
強引な海洋進出など、地域秩序の「力による現状変更」を目指す中国に自制を促す。中長期的に東アジアの平和と繁栄を追求する。そうした戦略的な目標を日韓両国は共有すべき時ではないか。

Following the conclusion of the treaty normalizing relations with Japan, then South Korean President Park Chung Hee said in the National Assembly that his country must not take the wrong path in the present and the future by adhering too much and solely to the past.
国交正常化を果たした朴正煕大統領は国会演説で、「過去にのみ執着するあまり、現在および未来への道を誤ってはならない」と説いた。

This is a sentiment that we hope his daughter, the current president, will take to heart.
娘の朴氏に、今一度、かみしめてもらいたい言葉である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 22, 2015)

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srachai について

early retired civil engineer migrated from Tokyo to Thailand
カテゴリー: 英字新聞 パーマリンク

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